WebSocket support

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UnrealIRCd 4.0.10 and later support the WebSocket protocol (ws:// and wss://). This allows Javascript (internet browsers) to connect directly to IRC, without the need of intermediate gateways, which is more secure, more stable and uses fewer resources. UnrealIRCd 5 is compatible with KiwiIRC if you use websocket type 'text'.

A very crude websocket example can be seen on https://www.unrealircd.org/files/dev/ws/websocket_unrealircd.html which should work on all major browsers.

Configure the server[edit]

1. Load the websocket module[edit]

Add this to your unrealircd.conf:

loadmodule "websocket";

And then rehash the server.

2. Enable websocket on the port[edit]

This step is for UnrealIRCd 5.x only

You need to alter (or add) your Listen block by adding websocket { type text|binary; } under listen::options. You need to choose either text or binary for a type. UnrealIRCd 4.x can only do binary. UnrealIRCd 5 adds support for type text, which is needed by KiwiIRC and other webclients.

3. Connect to the server[edit]

That's all you need to do on the server in order to get ws:// to work! If you also want wss:// (SSL/TLS) then see Using SSL/TLS with websocket. Note that we recommend testing ws:// first, so connect a client.. see next.

Connect a client[edit]

You can now connect to your server from javascript using websockets. A very crude example can be found at https://www.unrealircd.org/files/dev/ws/websocket_unrealircd.html

IMPORTANT: If the site is https:// (like in case of unrealircd.org) then you can only use wss:// (SSL/TLS, see next) and not ws:// (plaintext). So if you wish to test ws:// to your server then copy-paste the HTML code from the above URL and put it on a HTTP site or your local computer.

Do you know a good/better true websocket-to-IRC client? Let us know in the websocket forum thread or tell me at syzop@unrealircd.org

Using SSL/TLS with websocket[edit]

Websocket has two URI's, ws:// which is plaintext and wss:// which is secure. This is similar to http and https, the former is plaintext and the later is over SSL/TLS.

First of all, you need to have a valid official SSL certificate for your server. This is the hardest part. You cannot use self-signed certificates as all browsers will reject them. How to acquire such a certificate is beyond the scope of this documentation. You can use a "real" certificate authority like Comodo or use free Let's Encrypt.

Now, you need to configure a special port for websocket:

listen {
    ip *;
    port 6800;
    options {
        websocket { type text; } // type must be either 'text' or 'binary'
    tls-options {
        certificate "tls/server.cert.pem";
        key "tls/server.key.pem";
        options {

And then you can connect to this server from javascript using wss://ip:6800/

The key thing here is the no-client-certificate. This tells UnrealIRCd NOT to ask for a client certificate. If you don't have this option set then Chrome will FAIL to connect mysteriously. Firefox will work fine, though. It's clear that this is a Chrome bug (see https://bugs.chromium.org/p/chromium/issues/detail?id=329884).

As you can see, the certificate and key can be specified for this specific port. This may be useful when using Let's Encrypt.

Using port 443[edit]

You may want to have UnrealIRCd listen on port 443 (the standard HTTPS port) so your users can bypass firewall restrictions they may encounter. Now, do NOT let UnrealIRCd listen directly on port 443. Doing so would require root privileges and you must NOT run UnrealIRCd as root. You should use a firewall redirect instead. On Linux you can use iptables to redirect traffic to port 443 to another port (like 6800 in the example of above). This way UnrealIRCd can still run as a low privileged user (eg: ircd).

The command (run this as root) would be:

iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 443 -j REDIRECT --to-port 6800

The beauty of this is that Linux will preserve the IP address of your clients as well. Be sure to change port 6800 in the example of above if you use another port, eg 6697.

NOTE: No other application should be using port 443! (eg: apache or nginx)

NOTE 2: You will want to add this somewhere to a startup script or firewall configuration file, otherwise after a reboot the firewall rule will be lost.

NOTE 3: You may want to include a -d ipaddress here to restrict the rule to only apply to destination your IRC server IP address. This only matters if the machine is also used as a router though, not if you are just using a VM in the cloud for IRC.

TODO: Example for FreeBSD

Technical information for client developers[edit]


This is basically the IRC protocol over WebSocket.

There's an important point regarding the use of CR/LF in websocket messages. There was some initial disagreement in the IRC community regarding this as in regular IRC CR/LF are part of the protocol but in websocket they are unnecessary:

  • UnrealIRCd and earlier:
    • client->server: requires you to send a \n at the end of each line
    • server->client: will send \r\n at the end of each line
  • UnrealIRCd 4.0.13 and later:
    • client->server: no \n required at the end of each line (but you may still send one). Assumes you will only issue one IRC command per websocket message.
    • server->client: no \r\n will be sent at the end of each line. This is OK since UnrealIRCd will only send one IRC command per websocket message.

Bottom line: if you want to maintain some compatibility with earlier (beta) websocket implementations then just send a \n (ASCII 10) at the end of each message and be prepared to strip \r\n at the end of each line if necessary.

Type 'binary' vs 'text'[edit]

UnrealIRCd 4.x only supports websocket type binary (WEBSOCKET_TYPE_BINARY). UnrealIRCd 5.x also supports type text (WEBSOCKET_TYPE_TEXT).

The difference between the two has consequences on the client (javascript) side.

Nowadays, most web devs want to use type text because it's easier for them. It does come with some caveats/problems with non-UTF8 characters, as explained later in this article.

Problems with websockets and non-UTF8[edit]

The following applies to UnrealIRCd 5 and later.

Summary (TL;DR): If you 1) do NOT set set::allowed-channelchars to 'any' and 2) ONLY use UTF8 nickchars in set::allowed-nickchars (or don't use allowed-nickchars at all) then you will be fine... mostly.

The problem[edit]

If you use the websocket type 'text', which is popular among websocket developers, then this means websocket users can only receive valid UTF8 text. The problem with this is that IRC traffic may also contain non-UTF8 text. If UnrealIRCd would send the non-UTF8 text to the websocket user then the websocket browser would disconnect the connection due to violating the websocket specification. So, UnrealIRCd replaces the non-UTF8 characters with a "replacement character" (shown as: �). So far so good.

The problem is that the original text is lost in the translation process and also that multiple texts containing a non-UTF8 sequence may resolve to the same "cleaned up text" with the "replacement character". For things like channel messages this is not a problem, but this also happens in other commands like JOIN and MODE.

It allows the following "attacks", such as:

  • If, in your set::allowed-nickchars, you allow a non-UTF8 nick character set, then you can have unkickable users and you can have ghost users (users that you don't see in the nick list but that are still in the channel).
  • If set::allowed-channelchars is set to 'any', this allows non-UTF8 characters in channel names. If a websocket user ends up in such a channel, eg due to invite or a redirect or ban forward, then the websocket user will be unable to part such a channel. And again, here too, there is the possibility of ghost users.

More attack details are available in this post: https://github.com/ircv3/ircv3-specifications/pull/342#issuecomment-491252301

The solution/workaround[edit]

  1. Do not use non-UTF8 character sets in set::allowed-nickchars
  2. Use the default setting set { allowed-channelchars utf8; } or even set { allowed-channelchars ascii; } if you are strict. Do NOT use 'any'.

This still leaves some other issues unresolved but the big issues like desync, ghosts and unkickable user issues should be resolved.

If you don't want any such issues then the websocket client should use type 'binary' instead of 'text'. Then the websocket client will receive the original text without any replacement characters and thus the issues related to that don't appear. That being said, using 'binary' is not popular among client coders.